Mundaka Upanishad

The Mundaka Upanishad is embedded inside Atharva Veda. It is a poetic verse style Upanishad, with 64 verses, written in the form of mantras.  However, these mantras are not used in rituals, rather they are used for teaching and meditation on spiritual knowledge. The  Mundaka Upanishad contains three Mundakams (parts), each with two sections. The first Mundakam, states Roer, defines the science of “Higher Knowledge” and “Lower  Knowledge”, and then asserts that acts of oblations and pious gifts are foolish,  and do nothing to reduce unhappiness in the current life or next, rather it is the knowledge that frees. The second Mundakam describes the nature of the Brahman, the  Self, the relation between the empirical world and the Brahman, and the path to knowing Brahman. The third Mundakam expands the ideas in the second Mundakam and then asserts that the state of knowing Brahman is one of freedom, fearlessness, complete liberation, self-sufficiency, and bliss. 

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