All that is caused, everything that is a result, is short-lived; this is evident from the scriptures (sastras) as well as from experience and reason. The scriptures speak of aspirants who discarded even higher regions like Heaven, which are attainable by persons who perform the prescribed rites, for liberation is beyond the reach of those who dwell therein. Heaven and Hell are results of actions, they are objects made, so they cannot be eternal; they are conditioned by birth, growth, decay, and death. They do not exist from the very beginning; they were made; before that act, they were not. That which once was not and later will not be is as good as “not” even in the present. The fruit of action (karma) shares this quality, so it cannot grant eternal joy.
No effort can result in the creation of space (akasa) now; what already exists cannot be produced anew. Liberation (moksha) exists and is there self-evident. It cannot be produced anew by any action (karma). The moment the ignorance (a-jnana) that hides it from experience disappears, you are liberated and know your Reality; you are free from bondage. Prior to that moment, you were free, but you imagined you were bound and you behaved as if you were bound. How then are you to get rid of this idea that you are bound? By listening to the teachings of the Vedas with faith therein. Only then can ignorance perish. The chapter on Brahman in this Upanishad has the task of presenting these teachings.
It is in the nature of things that ignorance prompts people to crave plentiful fruits through the performance of actions. Then, we become despondent, and the cravings only bind us more and don’t help to make us free. The craving for fruit is hard to shove off, though this fearful flux of growth and decay makes us shiver in dread.