“The desire for liberation arises in human beings at the end of many births through the ripening of their past virtuous conduct” – (Paingala Upanishad 2:11)

They say that this is the highest state when the five senses stop together with the mind (from their normal activities) and the intellect itself is inactive. (paramam gatim)( Katha Upanishad4:3:10)

Nirvana means the cessation of the cycle of rebirth. It is liberation (moksha or mukti) from the state of embodiment in the material world. Freedom from karma and its consequences, and subsequent liberation from the cycle of rebirth, can be obtained in many ways, because there are many ways of liberation and overcoming.

Each person essentially has to follow his own path and find his own way according to the Universal Law (Dharma) and his/her own stage of character and spiritual development under the guidance of a competent spiritual teacher (Guru). .There are two views on the process of Nirvana:

  1.  Personal effort — Liberation as a self‐initiated process facilitated through the framework of • Mystical union born of reflection and meditation . (Jñana Yoga),
    • Through good works done without personal motive. (Karma Yoga)
    • Through devotion to God. (Bhakti Yoga)
  2.  The Taking of Refuge — the act of self‐surrender to God (Prapatti, Saranagati) and reliance upon His Grace.

The first three are “self-initiative” activities and the fourth is “God’s initiative”. The Blessed Lord has clearly stated in Bhagavad Gita 18; 66 that he will liberate all those who simply succumb to him, having given up all attempts at self-liberation. This is known as Prapatti — the Way of Self‐surrender.

पथ यही है
पथ यही है


Through meditation, work, and / or devoted service to God, we actively burn karma through our own personal spiritual practices and ascend toward the Head of God. Through “surrender,” we, as frail human beings, bring our own liberation and admit that we cannot completely rely on God’s love and compassion. This surrendered state of mind then naturally leads one to reflection, devotion, and good works — so all four ways are included in the taking of refuge.

Different denominations emphasize one or the other avenues of liberation, but acknowledge that the only difference between them is how easy and practical it is—depending on an individual’s character, stage of development, and abilities.

Liberation in Hinduism is individual, not collective. There is no “elect group”. All beings are destined and eventually achieve a reunion with God, given the fact that all beings are an inseparable mode of God’s expression and are already perfect in themselves

Since all Jiba are photons of God’s light, eternal separation from God is unthinkable. Sanatana Dharma teaches that liberation is merely a matter of realizing our true essence, not achieving a state of well-being in heaven. The difference is with regard to the timing not the “potential”.

Nature of Liberation

Nirvana means “the state of non‐return”. It is a positive state of being, awareness and bliss. Sanatana Dharma recognizes four degrees or stages of bliss or ultimate bliss (called: – moksha, mukti, nirvana, paramabada, etc.) which is the goal of spiritual practice. They are all transcendental states, and thus are by definition free from any physical constraints of space and time.

  1. Dwelling in the presence of the Lord as an individual and partaking in His divine nature and activities. (salokya )
  2. Attainment of a divine form and state similar to that of the Divine but without the power to create universes. (sarupya)
  3. Achieving a state of nearness to deism and eternal contemplation of the beatific vision. (samipya)
  4. Full Oneness with Divinity, the end of all individual ideas. (sayujya)

“When all the desires stationed in the heart are dispensed with one becomes liberated, undoubtedly, even while living.” – Garuda Purana (1:236: 12)


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