Physics (science in general) understands matter and energy very well. The great stumbling block is knowing of the so called difficult problem of consciousness. Despite years and years of works, science has not made much progress in knowing it. There is not even agreement on definition of consciousness. At present there are at least 40 different definitions of consciousness!
Here perhaps our ancient knowledge seems to be correct. There is a saying in Vedas that consciousness is singular. Hindu scriptures suggest Brahman as a universal cosmic super consciousness-
Pragnanam Brahman — Consciousness is Brahman .
The other well-known Vedic sayings shows similar concept about individual and Brahman.
- Ayam Atma Brahman — This Self (Atman) is Brahman .
- Tat Tvam Asi — That Thou art.
- Aham Brahmasmi– I am Brahman.
- Sarvam Khaluidam Brahman Tajjalān Iti Shānta Upāsita — All this (collectively) is Brahman, indeed: what evolves from That, what dissolves in That, what breathes or functions in That, should be closely and calmly studied…….
In a number of shlokas/verses in the Bhagavad Gita, it is mentioned that God (Brahman) is present in every animate and inanimate object. So the source of consciousness believes to be external, yet is experienced as the internal reality. There is a universal cosmic consciousness and we are reflections of it as different faces of a single crystal would reflect multiple images of a single object. This may tell us why consciousness per se is wholly uniform in its nature in spite of the fact that all of our bodies look different, and the contents (Vrittis) in consciousness vary from being to being. Our everyday sense of reality is drawn from our everyday experience which is undoubtedly approximated by classical physics. But fundamental reality has to be quantum.
There are some base models (especially by Hameroff and Penrose which consider processes in neurons in brain to be quantum mechanical. An amazing point mentioned by these authors is that consciousness may come in discrete number of flashes. According to them, the best known temporal correlate for consciousness is gamma synchrony EEG, 30 to 90 Hz (cycles/sec). They also mention that Buddhist monks in meditation know about such flashes coming as 40 to 80 times a second! In addition, there is some experimental support for resonant frequencies in neurons.