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Gopadha Brahmana

The Gopatha Brāhmana is the only extant Brāhmaṇa of the Atharvaveda. This work is not as ancient as the other three Vedas. Sage Gopatha composed this work between 2000 B. C. to 1000 B.C. He is one of the sages belonging to the Pippalāda branch in the Atharvaveda, who probably resided in the Madhyadeśa (middle part of India).

#### This Brāhmaṇa has two parts: 1. The Purva-Gopatha - It has five prapāṭhakas (chapters) and total 135 kaṇḍikās (short sections). 2. The Uttara-Gopatha - It has six prapāṭhakas and 123 kaṇḍikās. Each kaṇḍikā has five to six long sentences. The text starts with a description of creation from Brahman which alone existed in the beginning. This creation started with water. From water the sages like Bhṛgu, Atharvan and the ten Ātharvaṇa sages evolved. ** The other topics that appear in this Brāhmaṇa include: ** * Descriptions of Oṅkāra and Gāyatrī * Details regarding the rules of brahmacarya, which is usually spread over twelve years, needed for the study of the Vedas * Duties of the four main priests in Vedic sacrifices * Descriptions of sacrifices like Agnyādhāna, Agnihotra, Darśapurṇa- māsa, Sattra, Āgrayaṇa, Paśubandha, Rājasuya, Vājapeya, Aśvamedha, Sarpamedha * Many mantras of the Ṛgveda * Imposition of stringent rules (considered to be new in this work) on the Brāhmaṇas like prohibiting them from learning music and dancing * The Uttara-Gopatha Brāhmana bans receiving dakṣiṇā in sacrifice * Gopalatapini Upanishad- The Gopāla-tāpanī is one of the four Tāpinī Upanishads (Nṛsiṁha, Rāma, Tripurā and Gopāla). The central character of the text is Radha who is described as the Shakti of Krishna, her devotion and discussion of Gopala Krishna. Gopala Krishna is presented as identical to the nondual Absolute Reality (Atman-Brahman), the sat-cit-ananda, the Guru, the Om and the object of Vedanta, who can be reached by devotion to love. It is an important text to the Vaiṣṇava schools of Hinduism.

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धर्म एव हतो हन्ति धर्मो रक्षति रक्षितः ⁠। तस्माद् धर्मं न त्यजामि मा नो धर्मो हतोऽवधीत् ⁠।⁠।⁠

dharm ev hato hanti dharmo rakshati rakshitah । tasmaaddharmo na hantavyo ma no dharmo hatovadheet ।।

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ॐ पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात्पूर्णमुदच्यते । पूर्णस्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते ॥ ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

Om Purnamadah Purnamidam Purnat Purnamudachyate। Purnasya Purnamadaya Purnamevavashisyate॥ Om Shanti Shamti Shanti॥

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पिता धर्मः पिता स्वर्गः पिता हि परमं तपः। पितरि प्रीतिमापन्ने प्रीयन्ते सर्वदेवताः॥

Pita swarga,Pita dharm ,Pita hi Param Tapo। Pitori pritima pannay, Priyantay sarva devata॥

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प्रथमेनार्जिता विद्या, द्वितीयेनार्जितं धनं । तृतीयेनार्जितः कीर्तिः,चतुर्थे किं करिष्यति ॥

Prathame Narjita Vidya, Dvitiye Narjitam Dhanam । Trtiye Narjitam Punyam, Caturthe Kim Karisyati ॥

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अलसस्य कुतो विद्या ,अविद्यस्य कुतो धनम् । अधनस्य कुतो मित्रम् ,अमित्रस्य कुतः सुखम् ॥

alasasy kuto vidyaa , avidyasy kuto dhanam । adhanasy kuto mitram , amitrasy kutah sukham ॥

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एकवर्णं यथा दुग्धं भिन्नवर्णासु धेनुषु। तथैव धर्मवैचित्र्यं तत्त्वमेकं परं स्मृतम्॥

ekavarnan yathaa dugdham bhinnavarnaasu dhenushu। tathaiv dharmvaichitryan tattvmekan paran smriatam॥

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नीरक्षीरविवेके हंस आलस्यम् त्वम् एव तनुषे चेत्। विश्वस्मिन् अधुना अन्य: कुलव्रतं पालयिष्यति क:।।

nirakshiraviveke hans aalasyam tvam ev tanushe chet। vishvasmin adhunaa any: kulavratan paalayishyati k:।।

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उत्तरं यत्समुद्रस्य हिमाद्रेश्चैव दक्षिणम् । वर्षं तद् भारतं नाम भारती यत्र संततिः ।।

Uttaraṃ yatsamudrasya himādreścaiva dakṣiṇam varṣaṃ tadbhārataṃ nāma bhāratī yatra santatiḥ

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अग्निशेषमृणशेषं शत्रुशेषं तथैव च | पुन: पुन: प्रवर्धेत तस्माच्शेषं न कारयेत् ||

agnisheshamriansheshan shatrusheshan tathaiv ch | punah: punah: pravardhet tasmaachsheshan n kaaryet ||

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अपहाय निजं कर्म कृष्णकृष्णोति वादिनः । ते हरेर्द्वेषिनः पापाः धर्मार्थ जन्म यध्धरेः ॥

aphaay nijan karm kriashnakriashnoti vaadinah । te harerdveshinah paapaaah dharmaarth janm yadhdhreah ॥

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