he Self (atman, jiva, jivatman) is an infinite invincible “ expression” or "mode” of Brahman like a photon of light from the Sun and shares with Brahman the fundamental aspects of Existence (sat), Consciousness (cit) and Bliss (anandam).
What is Atman
TJust as a cup of water from the ocean shares all the characteristics of the ocean but is distinctly unusual from it in size and potentiality, so is the atman connected to the Brahman.
Related concepts of Atman
Jiva refers to the individual soul or self that is subject to the cycle of birth and death. It is often used interchangeably with Atman.
Maya refers to the illusion or delusion that creates the appearance of a separate self or individuality. It is believed to be the cause of ignorance and suffering in the world.
Karma refers to the law of cause and effect, which determines the nature of one's experiences in life and in future lives. It is believed that one's actions, thoughts, and intentions determine one's karma and shape one's future experiences.
Moksha refers to liberation or release from the cycle of birth and death, which is the ultimate goal of spiritual practice in Hinduism. It is achieved by realizing the identity of Atman and Brahman, and is considered the highest state of consciousness.
Advaita Vedanta is a school of Hindu philosophy that emphasizes the non-dual nature of reality and the identity of Atman and Brahman. It teaches that the individual self is an illusion created by Maya, and that true spiritual realization comes from recognizing the ultimate unity of all things.
Difference between atman and manas
In Hinduism, Atman and manas (mind) are two distinct concepts. Atman refers to the individual self or soul, which is believed to be identical with the ultimate reality or Brahman. Manas, on the other hand, refers to the mind, which is a part of the individual self and is responsible for thought, perception, and emotion.
While Atman is considered eternal and unchanging, manas is constantly changing and can be influenced by external factors such as sensory input and emotions. Atman is believed to be the ultimate source of consciousness and the self, while manas is seen as a temporary aspect of the individual self.
What is consciousness?
The Self is described by consciousness. The Self is naturally immortal, having no beginning and no end to its entity. It is atomic in size and undergoes ‘embodiment’ which implies that it takes birth in the bodies of plants, animals, humans, or gods. In the embodied state the atman is technically suggested as “jiva”. In an epitome, the natural attributive consciousness has become obscured and covered by thoughtlessness and illusion. The jiva wrongly specifies itself with the physical body /mind complex and this is the source of all sorrow and delusion. All sentient entities are basically non‐different from each other in their Essence of Nature. In the embodied state the disparity between them is the extent of ignorance predominating. Animals are in a greater mode of ignorance than human beings.