What is Meditation ?
According to Ashtanga Yoga Of Patanjali, Meditation is one of the important aspects of the 8 limbs of Yoga. Meditation used to be practiced by ancient saints and sages of Hinduism and was considered an important practice to achieve the final goal of Yoga practice which is Samadhi.
In many of the Indian scriptures like the Bhagavad Gita, Upanishad, Vedas, and Ramayana there are hundreds of ways to practice Meditation which is referred to as Yoga. In Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 6, Dhyan Yoga, Lord Krishna reveals the Yoga of Meditation and how to practise this Yoga. He discusses the role of action in preparing for Meditation, and explains in detail the obstacles that one faces when trying to control their mind and the exact methods by which one can conquer their mind.
During this practice of Meditation, Saints, and Sadhus focus their mind on Supreme Soul or Paramatma and unite with God. These ancient practices come under the Religious Practice Of Meditation.
Based on this information from the Vedic era, the teachings of Buddhism came into the picture with the concept of Mindfulness and Morality. His teachings were not really concerned with the existence or non-existence of God and became a part of Heterodox Indian Philosophy.
Meditation is the major part of the Eight Principles of Buddhist Philosophy of Life to get freedom from sufferings.And then he added his own experience and a new form of meditation called Satipattahana.Sati-attention ; Upa-Inside ; Thana-Keep , meaning, Keep Your Attention Inside.Satipattana is the establishment or arousing of mindfulness, as part of the Buddhist practices leading to detachment and liberation. This is the real technique of Mindfulness Meditation that Buddha teaches to his followers.