Heaven and Earth are the most commonly named deities in the RV. They are so inextricably linked that, while they are mentioned as a pair in six hymns, Dyáus is never mentioned alone, and Prthiv is mentioned in only one of three stanzas.

Furthermore, the dual compound Dyáva-Prthiv occurs far more frequently than the name Dyáus alone. More than 100 times, Heaven and Earth are mentioned as ródasi the two worlds. They are parents, and are frequently referred to as pitára, matára, and jánitri, in addition to being addressed as 'father' and'mother' separately. They created and sustain all creatures; they are also the gods' parents.

At the same time, they are mentioned in various passages as being created by individual gods. One is a prolific bull, the other a variegated cow, and both are seed-rich. They are never old. They are large and spread out; they are broad and vast abodes. They bestow great fame and dominion, or they bestow food and wealth. Moral qualities are sometimes ascribed to them. They are wise and strive for righteousness. They protect beings from disgrace and misfortune as father and mother. They are sufficiently personified to be called sacrifice leaders and to be pictured seating themselves around the offering, but they never attained living personification or importance in worship. These two deities are quite co-ordinate, whereas in most other pairs, one of the two predominates greatly.

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