Lord Kubera's Origin:
The origin of Kubera, like most other stories in our vast scriptures, varies greatly from text to text. According to the chronology, the first mention of Kubera is found in the Vedas. However, he is not considered a god in the Vedas. He is instead regarded as the chief of evil spirits. Even the prestigious text Shatpath Brahman refers to him as the leader of murderers and criminals. Kubera is given the status of god later in the Puranas. Manusmriti, too, speaks highly of him. He is mentioned as a god in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
There are several definitions of the word "Kubera." According to Sanskrit scholars, Kubera means "one with a monstrous or deformed shape." Kubera is the son of Visharva and Iladevi, two great sages. Most texts, including the Ramayana, maintain this description. This makes him Ravana's stepbrother, the main antagonist of the Ramayana. However, the Mahabharata states that he was the son of the sage Pulatsya and the brother of Vishrava.
Appearance and importance:
Kubera, unlike most other gods, does not appear prominently in the texts. He is commonly described as a dwarf with a large belly, three legs, eight teeth, and one eye. He is said to have a lotus complexion and is usually depicted holding a pot of gold or jewels. According to legend, Kubera lost one of his eyes after seeing Parvati, Shiva's wife, with lustful eyes. Some claim that Parvati eventually restored his eye after repeated requests. He is often seen riding a mongoose. In Tibet, he is said to have defeated the Nagad, or treasure guardians. That's why the mongoose was chosen as his vehicle. However, he is occasionally seen riding a goat.
Kubera - the god of wealth:
This is the main description with which most Hindus associate Kubera. Throughout the country, he is revered as the god of wealth. He is worshipped alongside Lakshmi because it is believed that he bestows wealth and prosperity on those who worship him. The event is celebrated as the great festival of Dhanteras, which occurs a few days before Diwali. On this auspicious day, many people purchase gold and jewelries. Kubera is known as the wealthiest of the gods. He is also sometimes referred to as the gods' treasurer. There are numerous stories in the Puranas about Kubera's wealth.
The King of Yakshas:
Yakshas are mentioned frequently in Hindu texts, as well as Buddhist and Jain texts. Yakshas are a diverse group of natural spirits. They could be benevolent or helpful, or they could be mischievous and troublesome at times. They are linked to a variety of natural elements.
They, unlike humans, have divine powers. Yaksha carvings and statues can be found in temples throughout South and Southeast Asia. They are even sometimes mentioned as the guardian deities of the temple. Kubera is mentioned as the Yakshas' king. Later Puranas bestow this title on him, and it is repeated in numerous other texts.
Although the Vedas generally dismiss him as the chief of evil spirits, he is given numerous other titles in later texts. Kubera is said to have been a Shiva devotee. After many years of penance, Shiva appeared in front of him. Shiva bestowed the title Lokpal, which means "protector of the gates," on him. He was also given the title Dikpala, which means direction protector. Kubera is known as the northern Dikpala. However, he is also associated with the east at times.
Kubera and Lanka:
According to the Puranic stories, Kubera performed extensive penance for Brahma. Brahma appeared before him and made him ask for boons after being impressed by his austerities. Brahma bestowed upon Kubera the world's riches, the Pushpak Viman, and the great city of Lanka, complete with a golden palace. However, Ravana later attacked Kubera and took control of the city, as well as Kubera's Pushpak vimana. Kubera was forced to flee the city. Then Kubera went to settle near Kailash, which is referred to in the texts as Alkapuri. Many texts describe the grandeur and beauty of Alkapuri, even comparing it to the great city of Indra at times. Shiva and Parvati, as well as many other beings, visit Alkapuri. The Puranas contain stories about how Alkapuri was attacked and its wealth stolen over time by various people.
The Legend of Kubera and Ganesha:
There is a popular story that tells how Kubera's arrogance was broken. Kubera once organized a grand feast to display his wealth and invited many deities. Lord Shiva and Parvati were among those invited. However, Lord Shiva refused to attend the feast and stated that Ganesha would attend in his place. Ganesha's hunger was insatiable once he began eating. Even though the other guests were still arriving, Ganesha had consumed all of the food. Ganesha began eating the dishes and whatever else he could find because he could no longer get food. Kubera became concerned and ran to Shiva. Shiva laughed and handed him the bowl of rice that Parvati had prepared. He requested that Kubera present this rice to Ganesha with humility. Kubera fell at Shiva's feet after realising his situation. Finally, Ganesha's hunger was satisfied when this bowl of rice was offered to him.
Kubera and Tirupati:
Kubera is the gods' treasurer. He is said to have lent Lord Venkateswara money for his marriage to Padmavati. As a result, many devotees travel to Tirupati to donate to the Lord's hundi, or donation pot. This is done so that the Lord can repay Kubera's money.
Among all the gods, Kubera is a very interesting personality in Hinduism. From being the chief of evil spirits, he went on to become the lord of wealth and king of Yakshas. On one hand, he is greatly material with delving in his riches, and on the other hand, he is a great devotee of Shiva. His personality encompasses every characteristic one can think of. That's why he maintains such a sacred place in the hearts of many Hindus.
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