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9 Principles Of Yoga


Learn fundamental principles of yoga, including Yamas, Niyamas, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi, and Kundalini.



Kosha (also, Kosa) is referred to as “sheath“, one of five (or seven) coverings of the Atman or Self according to Vedantic philosophy.

The ancient Indian model of “Personality”, given in the Taittiriya Upanishad, consists of the ‘five’ sheaths. They are ‘Annamaya’ (food sheath), ‘Pranamaya’ (vital air sheath), ‘Manomaya’ (mental sheath), ‘Vijnanamaya’ (intellectual sheath), and ‘Anandamaya’ (bliss sheath). ‘Annamaya’; a segment of the human system is nourished by ‘anna’, that is, food. ‘Pranamaya’ is that segment which is nourished by ‘prana’, that is, ‘bioenergy’. ‘Manomaya’ is the segment nourished by ‘education’. ‘Vijnanamaya’ is nourished by ‘ego’ and ‘Anandamaya’ is the segment nourished by ‘emotions’.”

According to the Kosha system in Yogic philosophy, the nature of being human encompasses physical and psychological aspects that function as one holistic system. The Kosha system refers to these different aspects as layers of subjective experience. Layers range from the dense physical body to the more subtle levels of emotions, mind, and spirit.

Soul (atman) is wrapped inside five layers (Pancha kosha) of Arishadvarga (the gang of the six internal foes within us). Arishadvarga are considered the 6 inner enemies of a man

Arishadvarga – (ari = shatru = enemy) (shad = 6) (Varga = classes)

Arishadvarga: are the six passions of mind (vicars): Kama (Lust or desire), Krodh (Rage, anger or hatred), Lobh (Greed), Moh (delusory emotional attachment), Mada or Ahankar (Ego or pride), and Matsarya (envy, jealousy)].

Vedic texts mention that the human body is only the physical abode of the soul. The soul is considered to be enveloped in five (actually it is seven koshas if we go into more details of Vedic texts) sheaths which we call as Pancha kosha. The Atman is at the center of the Bliss sheath. 

5 sheaths

The soul is enveloped in seven sheaths. The development of all the seven sheaths fully is necessary for man’s complete spiritual evolution.

Here are the 5 sheaths (Pancha kosha) or 7 sheets (layers of existence) of Human beings:

Annamay Kosh

 (Food Sheath) – Outermost of the Pancha koshas

The outermost of the koshas is called the sheath of food, or Annamaya kosha. This is the gross, physical body. This is the sheath of the physical self, named from the fact that it is nourished by food. Annamay Kosh is matter in the form of physical body sustained by intake of food. It includes five organs of perception (sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch), and the five organs of action (prehension, locomotion, articulation, excretion, procreation). This sheath has the most dense and slow vibrational frequency. This body cannot exist without contact with the other koshas.

Personality of the individual i.e., physique as well as traits depend on the condition of annamaya kosha, the formation of which continues life after life. The physique in the next birth is decided by the state of annamaya kosha of earlier births. Ancient Hindu wisdom proves that man, his personality and destiny (fate) are determined in his subtle bodies, which he brings from previous births.

Annamay Kosh is materialistic realization of the Supreme. Living through this layer man identifies himself with a mass of skin, flesh, fat, bones, and filth. This is considered as cage of flesh and blood in terms of spiritual world.

Purification, Refinement and development of annamaya kosha is possible through the methods of: Upavas (fasting), Physical Asanas, Tatvashudhi (Inner Purification) and Tapashcharya (Practice of austerity). Freeing our soul from the attachment and identification with the food sheath (Annamaya kosh) or physical body is the first objective of spirituality.

Pranmay Kosh

Pranmay Kosh

 (Vital Air Sheath or the life force)

Pranmay Kosh (the life force) is the pranic sheath composed of prana, the vital principle or the force that holds together the body and the mind. Its physical manifestation is the breath. As long as this vital principle exists in the organisms, life continues.

Vital energy, Prana which according to its location, movement and purpose has been divided into five major and five minor components. Yogic literature mentions the presence of 72,000 pathways along which the Prana moves in human body. The pathways have been named as Nadis in Yoga. These 72,000 Nadis interconnect the energetic centers, or chakras in human body. Even though the form of this sheath is subtle, it is very similar to the form of the physical body.

Nadis are astral tubes that carry pranic currents. They cannot be seen with the naked eye. They are not the ordinary nerves, arteries and veins. Three of them are important – Ida, Pingala, and Susumna. Susumna is the most important because Kundalini passes through this Nadi only.

The kundalini system consists of 72,000 nadis and the Sushumna, Ida and Pingala are the locations of Pranmay Kosha. Coupled with the five organs of action (hands, feet, organ of speech, organs of evacuation and the organ of generation.) it forms the vital sheath. Supreme Lord in the living symptoms or life forms.

Acupuncture, reiki and magneto-therapy seem to be working on this Kosh. Homeopathic medicines in moderate potencies (extremely high dilutions) also act on this Kosh.

Manomay Kosh

Manomay Kosh

(Mind as distinctly different from intelligence – Sheath)

Manomaya means composed of manas or mind. Thinking, feeling, and willing. The mind along with the five sensory organs (taste (tongue), smell (nose), vision (eyes), hearing (ear), and touch (skin), is said to constitute the manomaya kosa or “mind-sheath”. It is the cause of diversity. Man’s bondage is caused by the mind, and liberation, too, is caused by that alone.

The Manomaya Kosh is the mental faculty that receives all the sensory inputs, interprets them as good or bad, and desires the good. This Kosha is much more powerful than the preceding two Koshas and governs them and is, in turn, governed by the two Koshas superior to it. It is thus central to human existence.

Many modalities of treatment like aroma, music, color, placebo therapy, and shamanism work in this Kosh. Homeopathic medicines in the higher potencies also influence this Kosh.

Vigyanmay Kosh

Vigyanmay Kosh

 (Intellect Sheath)

Vijnanamaya means composed of vijnana, or intellect, the faculty which discriminates, determines, or wills. It is the sheath composed of more intellection, associated with the organs of perception. This knowledge sheath cannot be the supreme self for the following reasons; It is subject to change, It is insentient, It is a limited thing, and It is not constantly present.

A large part of this Kosh is in the realm, of the unconscious and is a major repository of information. The feeling of ‘me’ and ‘mine’, and the faculty of intelligence and reasoning constitute the fourth or Vigyanmaya Kosh. The feeling of freshness that ‘I had had a deep sleep’ is said to arise from this Kosh. When one closes the eyes and relaxes during meditation, the functioning of the Manomaya Kosh becomes minimum. The Vigyanmaya Kosh comes in the front and gets active. In the final stages of meditation, the intellect becomes stable and the mind becomes still and this is called Samadhi.

Meditation when used as a therapeutic tool works in the Vigyanmaya Kosh. All sorts of reasoning and counseling (psychotherapy) also act on this Kosh

Aanandmay Kosh

 (Bliss Sheath – or ceaseless joy not connected with body or mind) 

The Aanandmay Kosh is believed to be beyond the limitations of time, space, and causation. It is said to exist in a state of pure consciousness, unconnected with the fluctuations of the mind or the experiences of the physical body. In this state, there is no suffering, no pain, and no sorrow, only pure joy and bliss.

While the Aanandmay Kosh is said to be our true nature, it is often obscured by the conditioning of the mind and the limitations of the physical body. However, through the practice of yoga, we can gradually remove these obstacles and experience the pure bliss of the Aanandmay Kosh.

The practice of yoga involves techniques such as asana (physical postures), pranayama (breathing techniques), and meditation, all of which are designed to help us move beyond the limitations of the mind and the body and experience the blissful state of the Aanandmay Kosh.

Ultimately, the Aanandmay Kosh represents the highest potential of human existence. It is a state of being that is beyond suffering and beyond the limitations of the physical world. By striving to experience this state, we can cultivate a deeper sense of peace, joy, and contentment in our lives, and live in alignment with our true nature as beings of pure consciousness and bliss.

Traya Sharira

Traya Sharira

According to Indian Philosophy, the human being constitutes three vital bodies, 5 Koshas (sheaths), and 3 States.

In the philosophy of yoga, Traya Sharira refers to the three bodies or aspects of the human being: the physical body, the subtle body, and the causal body. These three bodies are interconnected and influence one another, and together they constitute the entirety of our being.

The three bodies

Human beings have three bodies where its Koshas reside.

  • Gross Body (Sthula Sharira)
  • Subtle Body or Astral Body (Linga Sharira)
  • Causal body (Karana Sharira)

The soul is different from these three bodies.

What is Gross Body ?

What is Gross Body ?

Gross body is physical body that is made up of the Panchmahabhutas – the five primordial elements, i.e., Akash (vacuum), Vayu (air), Agni (fire), Jal (water) and Prithvi (earth) and is subject to a sixfold change: birth, subsistence, growth, maturity, decay, and death.  It is born as a result of worthy and creditable deeds of the past. It is the prime channel through which the soul communicates with the outward entities and experiences both the pleasures and miseries of life. Gross body is simply the vehicle of all the other Principles (bodies) during physical incarnation. Annamaya & part (physical manifestation) of Pranamaya Kosh reside in Gross (physical) body. Gross body needs gross food, drink and air which it gets from Annamaya and Pranamaya Kosha. At death the physical body perishes and its five constituent elements are dissolved.

According to the Hindu philosophy the prime objective of the Gross body (Sthula sharira) is to attain the knowledge of the self, experience divine bliss and reach the acme of spirituality which would lead to Salvation (Moksha) finally in this short span of human life. The human soul gets entrapped in this mundane world of untold desires and thereby experiences all sorts of pain and pleasures resulting from the attachments to various desires and wants.

What is Subtle Body ?

What is Subtle Body ?

Subtle or astral body (Linga Sharira) is where lives mind and intellect. Manomaya and Gyanamaya Kosh and part of pranamaya kosha resides in Astral or Subtle body. Linga Sharira contains pranamaya kosha, the movement of the pranic force directing our physical and mental activities. This movement happens through nadis or channels, conductors of energy which are controlled by the six chakras. Vital sheath is a subtler sheath when compared to annamaya kosha. This is composed of vital energy. As long as this vital energy exists in the organisms, life continues. This sheath is responsible for our physiological functions namely breathing, digesting, metabolizing, circulation, endocrinal, neural, skeletal, muscular etc.

It embodies seventeen parts: the five perceptive senses(jnanendriyas),the five organs of action(karmendriyas),

the five vital airs : respiration(prana),evacuation(apana),circulation(vyana),digestion and assimilation(samana)and the power in the body discard undesirable objects(udana). Udana is also active at the time of death and is also responsible for ousting the subtle body from the gross body. The subtle body also contains the mind and the intellect. The gross body is sustained by the subtle body which manage the organs of perception and action, the pranas and the physiological systems. When the gross body perishes the subtle body also leaves. The subtle body varies from one person to another .the association of the self with the emotional aspect of the subtle body gives rise to feelings like ‘’I am mirthful’ ’I am sad’ ’I am angry’’etc. The subtle body is the seat of the mind and the intellect.manomaya kosha(the mental sheath), vigyanmaya kosha(intellect sheath) and part of pranamaya kosha( energy or vital air sheath)lie in astral or the subtle body. The subtle body consists of the cognitive and the cerebral coverings which carry the emotions and feelings of the mind and ideas and ideals of the intellect. All these are mere perceptions. The subtle body comprises of the thoughts.

The Linga sharira (subtle body) surrounds the Sthula Sharira (physical body) as an aura of energy. The Nadis (subtle energy channels) exist in this subtle medium through a fine merger into the physical medium. This is the “vital body” and the prototype and reflection of the physical body. It comes into existence before the physical body as the latter is built and formed upon and around it and it only fully fades out and dies when the very last remaining particle of the deceased physical body disappears and disintegrates. In the internal astral body there are counterparts of organs outside. They are called astral senses. A yogi hears through astral ears and sees through astral eyes. Thus he can hear sounds from distant lands, he can see objects in distant localities. This is called clairvoyance and clairaudience.

When a person dies, his or her gross body (sthula sharira) is burnt. This being in fact the ‘Antya ishthi’ (antyeshthi) the last sacrifice offered in fire, but the soul cannot quit the gross body without a vehicle of some kind. This vehicle is the Linga-sharira or subtle body, sometimes described as angustha-matra (of the size of a thumb), invested in which the deceased person remains hovering near the burning ground or crematorium. It is the vehicle for and of Prana.

The Upanishadic texts reiterate the existence of a purusha (being) of the size of the thumb (angustha matram) enshrined in the interiors of the heart – “The self (purusha), that is of the size of a thumb (angustha), resides in the cave of the heart. The self who is the size of a thumb is a light (jyoti) without smoke.” This “being” dwelling inside the heart has been equated with the ‘jiva’ or the ‘self’ which carries the consciousness and a meta-physical body (prakriti), also termed as the karana sharira. Kathopanishad says “This shining, luminious angustha-matra entity residing in the cave of our heart is “vibhrajate because of which the whole world is illuminated.”

Astral Body’s Lower Mind: This sheath is the also energy of action. This mental sheath is composed of two qualities, mana (mind) and buddhi (intellect). Mana is the rational, linear, sequential, thoughtful mind. Buddhi is the quality of discrimination which comes after knowledge, after the removal or the absence of ignorance. The former constitutes the manomaya kosha, while the latter is called as the Vigyanmaya Kosha.

Astral Body’s Higher Mind: The Vijnanamaya kosha is the sheath of the intellect (buddhi) and intuitive knowledge/wisdom which gives us the discriminative capability that helps to differentiate between virtues & vice, good & bad, right and wrong, truth & untruth. It controls the mind, the senses, the fructifying samskaras & all activities of the body. The ego-driven intellect can lead to actions when it gets co-mingled with the memories and is clouded over by the manas which result in pain and suffering. Through the practices of meditation, regular self-study & enrichment of knowledge through libraries & discourses could lead towards devotion. Our mind becomes purified and the intellect can then begin to depend more and more on the pure intuitive wisdom rather than be influenced by the ego. As you begin to experience this aspect of existence, you discover that this sheath is merely an illusion covering over the eternal self. Hence the self is different from the body, unchanging, ever pure and free from modifications. Therefore, the self is a witness of the Vijnanamaya Kosha.

What is Causal Body ?

What is Causal Body ?

Anandmaya Kosh resides in Causal body (Karana Sharira). Causal body needs bliss or peace which it gets from Anandmaya Kosh. Karana Sharira or Causal body is the map template which is the sole cause for the gross and subtle bodies in the future birth of the soul that is not liberated or detached from the causal body. Karana Sharira controls the formation and growth of the other two bodies, and determine every aspect of the next birth.

Karana Sharira is the doorway to the higher consciousness. It is associated with the state of dreamless sleep and samadhi. It links individual consciousness with the collective consciousness. Experiences (samskaras) from our past lives are stored in the causal body, it carries the information and knowledge acquired during the previous births. The attachment of Maya and intense desires for the worldly objects and pleasures, called “vasanas” also go along with Karana Sharira.

At the time of death, both the causal and astral bodies (that remain together) separate from the physical body. Once the soul is completely detached from its causal body it goes to the abode of God. The soul never needs to come back to the world again except for the God’s wish. When they come back to the world they come in the form of Gurus (Perfect masters). Guru is the one who leads the created to the creator. Guru is the descent of the Divine in human form to create the right conditions for the seekers to ascend to his Divine essence (Moksha or Enlightenment or Chaitanya).

(Sadgurus or Perfect masters are in reality, the seers who have realized the Absolute or have reached the highest realm of spiritual attainment, are present forever in the whole universe whether in an embodied or in an un-embodied state. They operate in gross, subtle, or mental world. They have been chosen to execute the Divine Mission and work together for the execution of the Divine Mission – Liberation of the seekers.)

The life span of each of the bodies varies largely. Since the gross body is nurtured by the gross food thereby it has very short life. The subtle body is nourished by thoughts and feelings so its life span is a bit longer than the gross body. The causal body has the highest life span as it needs only bliss and peace. The soul is distinct from all these three bodies .it does not requires anything because it is the experience and the observer and thereby it is imperishable and immortal.

Death is nothing but the falling off the gross body. The soul remains along with the suble and causal body where samskaras are stored. Man would take human birth again and again with the help of gross body till the samskaras are fully exhausted. We can only use and burn all our samskaras (karma phala)only in our human life by conscious living and our will power. It is not possible in any other life besides human life and that is the prime reason why human birth is regarded as greatest from liberation perspective

What is Granthis?

What is Granthis?

The Sanskrit word Granthi means knot or doubt. It can also be translated as a particularly difficult knot to unravel. Granthis the knots that bind us.

Granthi is psychological or physic barriers to liberation (Moksha) Granthis prevent prana from its path along sushumna nadi. Granthis bind us to mortal fears, and give us a false impression of reality (avidya) and hold is in a state of I-ness (asmita) and hold us to raga (attachment) and dvesha (repulsion)

3 Granthis

There are 3 Granthis in the physical body called psychic knots, which are obstacles in the awakening of kundalini.

The granthis are called Brahma, Vishnu, and Rudra, and they represent levels of awareness where the power of maya, ignorance and attachment to material things is especially strong. Each aspirant must transcend these barriers to make a clear passageway for the ascending kundalini.

Brahma granthi

Brahma granthi functions in the region of mooladhara chakra. Its where our basic fears and drives are located. Fear of death, fear of lack of money or food. The fight and flight reaction. It implies attachment to physical pleasures, material objects and excessive selfishness. It also implies the ensnaring power of tamas – negativity, lethargy and ignorance.

Vishnu granthi

Vishnu granthi operates in the region of anahata chakra. This Granthi will hold us to our individual ego. We will feel the need to overpower and dominate, otherwise we may be dominated by the competition. It is associated with the bondage of emotional attachment and attachment to people and inner psychic visions. It is connected with rajas – the tendency towards passion, ambition and assertiveness. 

Rudra granthi

Rudra granthi functions in the region of ajna chakra. It is associated with attachment to siddhis, psychic phenomena and the concept of ourselves as individuals. One must surrender the sense of individual ego and transcend duality to make further spiritual progress. A symptom of this knot can be a misinterpretation of service. Serving others or communities is only a good thing when it is done freely and without expectation. It can also become a problem if the service is done as a penance, then who is the service performed for, the giver or the receiver.

What is Kundalini Tantra?

What is Kundalini Tantra?

Kundalini or serpent power does not belong to the physical body, nor does it belong to the mental body it exists in the astral body. Kundalini literally means coiled-up energy or the power that dwells in a cave (Kunda). For any transformation to be possible energy is needed to bring it about. For the transformation of consciousness, a special & powerful energy is needed. That is Kundalini. The term “KUNDALINĪ” is based on several words, and therefore has several meanings.

The word-ending “ī” indicates that it relates to the feminine principle and deals with a form of SHAKTI (energy) and PRAKRITI (nature).

  • KUNDA is a hole or well into which all debris and rubbish are thrown. Our impressions from earlier lives lie like an amorphous substance deep in the unconscious (Mūlādhāra Chakra).
  • KUNDALA means ring (generally earring). A ring or a circle has neither a beginning nor an end. It is infinite and that is why it is a symbol of creation. Cosmic energy is circling constantly; we do not know when the Universe began and how long it will last.

The 3 coils of the snake also represent: 

  • 3 Gunas (tamsik, rajshik, sattvic). 
  • 3 states of consciousness (sleeping, waking, dreaming)
  • 3 types of experience (subjective, sensual & absence of obj)

And half coil represents the state of transcendence where there is neither waking, sleeping or dreaming. So the 3 & half coil represents the total experience of the universe & the experience of transcendence.

Kundalini is the study of Tantra Yoga, & hence Kundalini is considered as the form of Goddess & should be worshipped as HER power. Tantric science has its foundation in Vedic & yogic teachings, that speak about the transforming word (vak), the energy of consciousness (chit-shakti), or the power of knowledge (jnana-shakti), which are all symbols of kundalini.

According to tantra vidya, it is not a psychic energy to be aroused but a Divine energy to be revered. Efforts to manipulate kundalini through willful practice or forceful techniques are not only dangerous, but fail to recognize the reality of the Goddess and are contrary to her worship. The arousing of the Kundalini can occur through devotion or profound meditation & does not require the use of specific Yoga techniques. 

When Yoga techniques are used to arouse the Kundalini – and they are often very helpful, they should be done as a part of the practice of surrender to the Divine or inquiry into the self-nature. The Yoga student should first have a background in meditation, control of senses & an understanding of the working of the mind before trying to arouse the Kundalini.

What is Naadis ?

What is Naadis ?

NĀDĪS are energy channels through which PRĀNA – divine energy, life and consciousness – streams. Within the human body there is a subtle and perfect network of 72,000 Nādīs that distribute this life force throughout the whole body. On the physical level the Nādīs correspond to the nervous system, but their influence extends beyond this to the astral and spiritual planes of our existence. If all the Nādīs are functioning correctly then we are healthy and generally feel happy. But nearly every one of us has some physical or psychic problem, which means that some of the Nādīs are not working properly and need to be balanced.

PRĀNA is conscious energy, which means that the Nādīs also transmit consciousness. By means of the Nādīs one can see and hear things at a great distance and move in other levels of consciousness

Astral travel: There are numerous reports from people who were clinically dead and then came back to life again. They nearly all described how they traveled along a tunnel with light radiating at the end. This tunnel is the Nādī through which life escapes from the body.

We can also have such “tunnel experiences” in dreams and on astral journeys. With these, we are not really outside the body but in an altered state of consciousness. The Nādīs make it possible for us to take mental journeys of discovery throughout the entire Universe. With their help, our consciousness is able to go to any place we would like without the body having to move at all.

Three Nādīs

Three Nādīs are of special importance – IDĀ, PINGALĀ and SUSHUMNĀ


IDĀ arises in the left side of the body and represents the moon principle


Begins on the right side of the body and symbolizes the sun principle.


SUSHUMNĀ runs through the central channel of the spinal cord and represents consciousness.


The moon symbolizes the mind with its changeable feelings, whereas the sun represents the intellect. Just as our emotions and thoughts change constantly, the moon is also constantly changing its form. The intellect, however, is a stable and constant principle like the sun. Only when harmony and balance prevail between the moon system and sun system are we healthy and capable of developing further mentally and spiritually?

We are able to activate and harmonize the Nādīs through the breath. When we breathe through the left nostril in Prānāyāma we activate the Idā Nādī. The Idā Nādī cools, quietens, and refreshes the body and mind like the silvery light of the moon. Pingalā Nādī, however, which is influenced by breathing through the right nostril has a warming and activating influence, in the same way as sunshine warms the earth and stimulates the growth of vegetation.

Idā and Pingalā begin in the brain at approximately the level of the Pituitary Gland. Idā has an effect on the right side of the brain whilst Pingalā influences the left hemisphere. To maintain balance both Nādīs run in a snake-like course from one side of the body to the other. At the points where they cross, they also meet with the central Nādī, Sushumnā. At those places where the power and radiance of the sun and moon meet, together with the strengthening effect of the Sushumnā, very powerful energy centers are called CHAKRAS form.

The first crossing of the Nādīs at the top of the spinal column forms the Throat Chakra (Vishuddhi Chakra) and the last crossing at the base of the spinal column forms the Root Centre (Mūlādhāra Chakra). Here the Idā Nādī flows on the left side of the body and the Pingalā Nādī on the right side, and it is precisely here that our dormant consciousness lies hidden.

At several places along the spinal column, the Nādīs form a type of knot (GRANTHI), each of which constitutes a key point in our spiritual development. When these knots are “untied” the energy located within them is activated and the hidden powers (SIDDHIS) are given to us as healing powers, the seeing of past and future, the seeing of auras, and other supernatural abilities.

Other terms for Idā, Pingalā and Sushumnā are GANGĀ, YAMUNĀ and SARASVATĪ. These are the names of the three holiest rivers in India. Gangā and Yamunā flow on the surface but Sarasvatī flows underground. It rises to the surface only once every twelve years. This event happens in conjunction with a particular planetary constellation and is known as the KUMBHA MELĀ. This great spiritual festival of India held at the confluence of these three rivers (Sangam) is attended by millions of people who come to attain liberation from their Karmas and the cycle of rebirth by bathing in the sacred waters. But for the Yogi the three main Nādīs are the “divine rivers” and the Āgyā Chakra (the eyebrow centre) where these Nādīs meet is the holy place of pilgrimage where the Yogi attains liberation.

Just as the mysterious river, Sarasvatī, only rarely appears, the Sushumnā Nādī is only active for certain short periods of time (for example, at dawn and dusk). When the three main Nādīs unite only one stream of consciousness flows – the spiritual energy of the Sushumnā Nādī. The energy also flows through this Nādī in deep meditation and in Samādhī. For as long as the Sushumnā is inactive we are plagued by constantly changing CHITTA VRITTIS – thoughts, emotions, worries, etc. But once the Sushumnā begins to flow the waves of the mind come to rest and we “bathe” in the bliss of divine consciousness.

  • Nadi is the flow of energy
  • Shiva samhita – 350000 
  • Gorakh Satarka – 72000 Nadi
  • GS – “When Nadis are full of impurities vayu doesn’t enter them”.
  • Impurities : wastes & residue of sensuous living & desires.
  • Fat in blood vessels example
  • Due to waste accumulation, body capacity to circulate energy weakens. Body becomes lethargic, energy level decreases, prevent from activation of chakras and higher brain functions.
  • Intermediate link between physical body & mind. So can be handle by controlling and purifying the pranic body through physical body.
  • By strengthening sympathetic & parasympathetic nervous system, ida & pingala directly affected.
  • By developing CNS – sushumana is activated.

Tri Guna

Tri Guna

Guna is a Sanskrit word that translates as “quality, peculiarity, attribute, or tendency.” In yoga and Ayurveda, a guna is a tattva or element of reality that can affect our psychological, emotional, and energetic states. The three gunas are described as being constantly in flux and interacting with one another, in a playful state referred to as maya or illusion. The patterns of the interplay of the gunas can define the essential qualities of someone or something, and these patterns can highly influence the path and progress of life. For yoga practitioners, awareness of the gunas provides a GPS to allow us to make choices to be more balanced, peaceful, and harmonious both on and off our mat. Cultivating the ability to identify and understand the nature of the gunas brings us closer to seeing the universal truth of oneness.

In the philosophy of Yoga, all matter in the universe arises from the fundamental substrate called Prakriti. From this ethereal Prakriti, the three primary gunas (qualities of energy) emerge creating the essential aspects of all nature—energy, matter, and consciousness. Hence, all functions of body, mind & world are dependent on the interplay of the 3 Gunas. The cosmic nature has 3 fold characteristics in its nature; in this sense, every action, thought, & event is created due to the interaction of the 3 gunas. One Guna alone does not influence the personality. There is always a combined influence of 3 gunas.

Prakriti has 3 properties

  1. Sattva or Vibration (Prakash),
  2. Rajas or Activity
  3. Tamas or Stability 

Sattva or Vibration (Prakash),

Sattva or Vibration (Prakash),

Sattva is a state of harmony, balance, joy, and intelligence. Sattva is the guna that yogis achieve towards as it reduces rajas and tamas and thus makes liberation possible. Other sattvic qualities are delight, happiness, peace, wellness, freedom, love, compassion, equanimity, empathy, friendliness, focus, self-control, satisfaction, trust, fulfillment, calmness, bliss, cheerfulness, gratitude, fearlessness, selflessness.

Rajas or Activity

Rajas or Activity

Rajas is a state of energy, action, change, and movement. The nature of rajas is of attraction, longing and attachment and rajas strongly bind us to the fruits of our work. Other rajasic qualities are anger, euphoria, anxiety, fear, irritation, worry, restlessness, stress, courage, rumination, determination, chaos.

Tamas or Stability

Tamas or Stability

Tamas is a state of darkness, inertia, inactivity, and materiality. Tamas manifests from ignorance and deludes all beings from their spiritual truths. Other tamasic qualities are laziness, disgust, attachment, depression, helplessness, doubt, guilt, shame, boredom, addiction, hurt, sadness, apathy, confusion, grief, dependency, ignorance.

Tri Guna

Working With the Gunas

Working With the Gunas

The mind’s psychological qualities are highly unstable and can quickly fluctuate between the different gunas. The predominant guna of the mind acts as a lens that affects our perceptions and perspective of the world around us. Thus, if the mind is in rajas it will experience world events as chaotic, confusing, and demanding and it will then have a strong tendency to continue to react to events in a rajasic way. Therefore, for yogis to make progress along the path we must practice self-observation and discernment to witness and not react to the activities of the gunas. We must also have the inner-strength and willpower to consciously shift our thoughts and actions away from tamas and rajas towards sattvic balance and purpose.

  • To reduce tamas avoid tamasic foods, oversleeping, overeating, inactivity, passivity and fearful situations. Tamasic foods include heavy meats and foods that are spoiled, chemically treated, processed or refined. 
  • To reduce rajas avoid rajasic foods, over-exercising, overwork, loud music, excessive thinking and consuming excessive material goods. Rajasic foods include fried foods, spicy foods, and stimulants. 
  • To increase sattva reduce both rajas and tamas, eat sattvic foods and enjoy activities and environments that produce joy and positive thoughts. Sattvic foods include whole grains and legumes and fresh fruits and vegetables that grow above the ground. All of the yogic practices were developed to create sattva in the mind and body. Thus, practicing yoga and leading a yogic lifestyle strongly cultivates sattva.

What is Chakras ?

What is Chakras ?

Chakra is a Sanskrit word meaning ‘wheel’, which means it is spinning, hence Chakras are the spinning energy centers that directly influence your well-being & how consciously & happily you create your life. They are located in the astral body along the spine, starting at the base of the spine and running upwards to the crown of the head. The Chakras coincide with a gland in the physical body and each radiates a specific color and energy. Since each chakra relates to specific spiritual, emotional, psychological, and physical aspects of our being,
When all chakras are balanced, you feel safe, creative, strong, & secure in yourself & in relationships. You are comfortable speaking your mind & your thoughts come together with clarity & ease. You also feel connected to your intuition & the vital energy of the universe. 

There are seven major chakras in the body. Each of the chakras can be overactive or deficient, however, which means they are blocked & not in balance. Chakras can be out of balance since your time in the womb or even earlier: in yogic view, the karma you carry from the past lives is stored in the chakras. Each chakra root is planted in the major current of energy that runs up & down the center of the spinal column. This line of energy is called sushumna nadi. Along with susshumna 2 major currents of energy(nadis), cross back & forth, these are called ida & pingla nadis. 

7 chakras

The location of junctions of all these 3 nadis in the spine are called location of chakras., & those currents cause the chakras to spin. Chakras are affected by the flow of energy as it travels along the sushumna, ida & pingla, this energy is called ‘Prana’.

  1. The Root Chakra – Muladhara
  2. The Sacral Chakra – Svadhisthana
  3. The Solar Plexus Chakra – Manipura
  4. The Heart Chakra – Anahata
  5. The Throat Chakra – Vishuddha
  6. The Third Eye Chakra – Ajna
  7. The Crown Chakra – Sahasrara

Root Chakra

Root Chakra

Sanskrit Name: Muladhara

Color: Red

Location: At the bottom of the tailbone–in the perineum for men and the cervical area for women.

Beeja Mantra: Lam


Root chakra’s energy connect right to the earth’s energy. This chakra’s role is to connect all of your physical, bodily energy with the Earth itself. In other words, this chakra ‘grounds’ you.

Your Root Chakra is also linked to everything you need to survive. This includes the act of breathing, eating, sleeping, and experiencing physical security. When your 1st chakra is balanced, you’ll feel a deep sense of peace. You’ll feel safe in the knowledge that all of your core needs are met. Because of this, all total body healing starts here.

“It is said that the life-force energy of kundalini lies coiled as a serpent goddess. At the base of spine, wrapped 3 & a half times around the root chakra”. As you awaken the root chakra the kundalini energy rises up to unite with shiva energy 7 transfers energy to each chakra on its way up to crown chakra.



Sacral Chakra

Sacral Chakra

Sanskrit Name: Svadhisthana

Color: Orange

Location: In your pelvic region, a couple of inches below the belly button.


Also known as ‘the place of the self’ or ‘sva’, the Sacral Chakra is therefore all about your creative identity as a human. The chakra is associated with the pleasures of life, sexuality, creativity, & trust in relationships. This chakra helps you enjoy your life here on Earth. It’s the energy that motivates you to enjoy the fruits of your labor. When Svadhisthana in balance, you feel creative, positive, and receptive to change.


Solar Plexus Chakra

Solar Plexus Chakra

Sanskrit Name: Manipura

Color: Yellow

Location: In your stomach–around 2-3 inches above the belly button. The Manipura energy center further translates as ‘the lustrous gem.’ This is because this is the chakra where your self-confidence and personal power sit together in harmony.


Many call the Solar Plexus chakra the ‘Warrior Chakra’ as well. This is because this is by far the most powerful supporting chakra for bravery and boundary-setting.

For instance, you can most probably physically feel its raging energy when you feel angry. You’ll feel it when you need to defend yourself. For better or for worse, it’s your fight and flight response’s right-hand man!

When balanced, high self-esteem and self-worth are experienced.

Heart Chakra

Heart Chakra

Sanskrit Translation: Anahata

Color: Green

Location: In the chest at 4th thoracic vertebrae, in and around the heart space.


Because of this, when you’re experiencing feelings of love, compassion, and kindness…it’s this energy center you’re connecting to.

In spite of all its translations, this chakra is fundamentally just about love. Love is the most healing frequency of all. Similarly, when your Heart Chakra is balanced, you are easily able to feel love and empathy for yourself and others.


The throat Chakra

The throat Chakra

Sanskrit Name: Vishuddha

Color: Sky Blue

Location: Right in the middle of your throat.


Carrying the meaning of the words ‘very pure’, this chakra helps you to quite literally speak up. Because of this, you’ll do so in a smooth, confident, authentic way.

In addition, this chakra is your official seat of self-expression. The Throat Chakra also gives a voice to your personal preferences, beliefs and values.

When balanced, you openly and lovingly speak the truth. Moreover, you express yourself in whichever way feels most in alignment at any given time.

In other words, there’s nothing that enlightens and inspires those around you like an open Throat Chakra.


Third Eye Chakra

Third Eye Chakra

Sanskrit Name: Ajna

Color: Indigo

Location: Between the eyebrows–extending to your brain’s pineal gland.


The infamous Third Eye Chakra, Ajna, roughly translates as ‘beyond wisdom’.

This is because this mystic energy center opens you up to expanded states of consciousness. They go way beyond the 5 senses and the material world we live in. Extrasensory perception, intuition and psychic abilities are all born from the third eye. This is because of the brain’s small yet extremely powerful pinecone-shaped gland. It sits just behind Ajna, and goes by the name of the ‘pineal gland‘.

Furthermore, long before brain imaging, many ancient cultures knew about the third eye’s presence. They believed it to be our human connection to the divine.

When your Third Eye is balanced, you’ll feel equally in tune with the physical and spiritual world. You’ll also be able to connect with both your ego and your soul.


Crown Chakra

Crown Chakra

Sanskrit Translation: Sahasrara

Color: Violet/White

Location: At the very top of your head, resting on your crown.


According to most tantric yoga traditions, the final chakra translates as ‘a thousand petals’. This refers to its beautiful, petal-ladened symbology.

Sahasrara is nothing but pure consciousness, connecting you to the Universe. This complete Universe is also known as ‘Om’. And it’s quite literally nothing personal…

When it comes to the concept of The Crown Chakra, it’s something we all have in common. Every human, animal, plant, eco-system, planet and star has that same lifeforce energy. It’s also worth noting that this chakra exists beyond your unique ego. It is your connection to ‘God’, whatever you deem that to be.


Achieving a balanced crown chakra is the goal of any spiritual practice. Moreover, it’s not easy to do. Once truly balanced–you’ve achieved enlightenment. In other words, you discover the secret of who you really are. Transcending suffering is known in Buddhist tradition as ‘Nirvana’.

Besides working as control centers chakras also works as centers of interchange between physical, astral & causal dimensions. Through the chakras subtle energies from the astral body to causal body can be transferred, similarly physical energy can be transformed into the subtle energy through the action of the chakras & also that physical energy can be converted into mental energy within the physical dimension. As the chakras awaken man not only becomes aware of the higher realms of existence but also gains the power to enter those realms & then in turn to support & give life to lower dimensions.


Evolution in chakras

Mooladhara is the most basic fundamental chakra from where human evolution starts and sahasrara is the last chakra where evolution is completed. Beyond sahasrara, we experience divine energies and inner experiences come our way in meditation. Mooladhara is the first chakra in human incarnation but it is the last chakra that animals have the capacity to awaken. 

Below Mooladhara there are other chakras known as Patalas, representing the evolution of the animal kingdom. These chakras only connected to sense consciousness & not connected to mental awareness. There is no individual awareness & ego which starts from mooladhara. Therefore upto mooladhara chakra evolution takes place automatically. Animals do not practice pranayama or take sannyasa, Nature controls them completely and nature is responsible for every phase of evolution. However once kundalini reaches muladhara chakras, evolution is not spontaneous because Man is different from animals, he has awareness about time & space, he has an ego. So man has higher consciousness and once it has it he has to work for its evolution. That’s why kundalini keeps sleeping in mooladhara chakra until & unless it is pushed for awakening & progress. 

Names of animal’s chakras are, 

Atala, vitala, satala, talatala, rasatala, mahatala, patala

Animal’s lowest chakra starts from ‘patala’, it is the dimension representing total darkness and state of dormant & static.

Above sahasrara also there are chakras called as lokas, which represents higher divine consciousness. Lower chakras are the tamasic phase of evolution, from mooladhara onward we pass through the rajasic phase & fom sahasrara onwards we enter the sattvic phase of evolution.

10 Pranas

10 Pranas

Prana is energy, vitality, power. Prana is the foundation and essence of all life; the energy and vitality that permeates the entire Universe. Prana flows in everything that exists.

Furthermore, Prana is the connecting link between the material world, consciousness and mind. It is what makes life on the material level possible. Prana regulates all physical functions for example, the breath, the supply of oxygen, digestion, elimination and much more. The function of the human body is much like a transformer, receiving energy from the Universal flow of Prana, distributing that energy, and then eliminating it. If a person or a room has a healthy, harmonious vibration, we say: “There is good Prana here”. Illness, on the other hand, disturbs or blocks the flow of Prana. As we develop the ability to control Prana, we gain harmony and health, of both body and mind. In addition to this, with long and consistent practice an expansion of consciousness is experienced.

The 5 Pranas

Prana is divided into ten main functions:

  1. The five Pranas – Prana, Apana, Udana, Vyana and Samana.
  2. The five Upa-Pranas – Naga, Kurma, Devadatta, Krikala and Dhananjaya.

What is prana ?

What is prana ?

Prana is that special function of the Cosmic Prana, which supplies the human body with essential oxygen. Its energy flows from the nostrils to the level of the heart. Prana is a flow of energy, governing the thoracic area between the larynx and the top of the diaphragm. It is associated with the heart & organs of respiration together with the muscles & nerves that activate them. It is the force by which the breath is drawn inside. Certain techniques in particular activate Prana Shakti, these are Bhastrika, Nadi Shodhana and Ujjayi Pranayama.

What is Udana?

What is Udana?

Udana governs the neck & head, activating all the sensory receptors such as eyes, tongue, nose, ears. Udana also harmonize & activates the limbs and all their associated muscles, ligaments, nerves & joints. Its is responsible for erect posture of body, sensory awareness & the ability to respond to the outside world. It is with the assistance of Udana Prana that the Astral body separates itself from the physical body. A strong Udana Prana eases the phase of death.

With the control of Udana Prana, the body becomes very light and one may gain the ability to levitate. When Udana Prana is in our control, external obstacles such as water, earth or stones no longer obstruct us. Intense practice of the Yoga breath exercises also gives the possibility of walking on water, or even floating in the air. Fakirs who sit or lie on a bed of nails possess the ability to control their Udana Prana. Yogis who live in the forest and remain unaffected by heat, cold, thorns and insects, etc., are protected through the control of Udana Prana. Udana Prana is activated by the practice of Ujjayi Pranayama, Bhramari Pranayama, as well as Viparitakarani Mudra.

What is Vyana?

What is Vyana?

Vyana pervades the whole body, regulating & controlling all movement and coordinating the other pranas. It acts as the reserve force for the other pranas. Vyana Prana flows through the nerve channels of the human body. It has an effect upon the whole body and particularly on the Nadis. Poor circulation, impaired nerve stimulation and nervous breakdowns, originate from a deficiency in Vyana Prana.

Vyana Prana is activated and strengthened in the practice of Kumbhaka (breath retention). With each natural, relaxed breath that we take, there is an automatic pause between inhalation and exhalation. In the practice of Pranayama, this pause is consciously lengthened. When we retain the breath, we withhold energy in the body with a resultant build up in pressure. This pressure has the effect of releasing energy blockages. Kumbhaka stimulates the nervous system. Anyone who has combined the techniques of Kumbhaka and Maha Bandha, knows the subsequent, pleasant sensation of peace that flows through the body. This is the reason for being able to meditate well after this practice. The feeling is produced by the increased flow of Vyana Prana throughout the whole body.

What is Samana ?

What is Samana ?

Samana is located between the heart & the naval. It activates & controls the digestive system: the liver, intestines, pancreas, & stomach for transformation. On the physical level this relates to assimilation & distribution of nutrients. On an evolutionary level it relates to kundalini & expansion of consciousness.

This Prana is strengthened through the practice of Agnisara Kriya and Nauli. The practice of these two Kriyas prevents digestive problems and Diabetes. It also improves one’s resistance to infectious disease and cancer, due to the digestive fire that is awakened in the whole body, which purifies and cleans.

The most effective technique for awakening Samana Prana is Kriya Yoga. The practice of Kriya Yoga warms the entire body. This is due to the rising of Samana Prana. A very aware person can observe the aura of a Kriya practitioner becoming brighter and stronger with each round of practice.

What is apana ?

What is apana ?

Apana Prana influences the lower part of the body from the navel to the soles of the feet. This Prana governs the abdominal region, below the naval region & provides energy for the large intestine, kidneys, anus & genitals. It is concerned with the expulsion of waste from the body & is the force which expels the breath.  Diseases that affect the lower abdomen, intestines, kidneys, urinary tract, legs, etc., are the result of disturbed Apana Prana. The techniques of Nauli, Agnisara Kriya, Ashvini Mudra and Mula Bandha serve to strengthen and purify Apana Prana.

The five Upa-Pranas

The five Upa-Pranas – Naga, Kurma, Devadatta, Krikala and Dhananjaya.

NAGA – Burping

Removes blockages of Prana and Apana and prevents gas formation in the digestive system. Constant suppression of Naga can lead to Cardiac Arrhythmia. Other functions include triggering of the vomit reflex due to indigestion and dissolving blockages of Samana Prana.

KURMA – Blinking

This Upa-Prana functions in the area of the eyes, controlling opening and closing of the eyelids. The energy of this Upa-Prana is active when we are awake and is revitalised when we sleep. Kurma protects the eyes from the penetration of dust and foreign bodies etc. Disturbance of this Upa-Prana causes uncontrolled blinking and twitching of the eyelids. The practice of Trataka provides balance and strength to Kurma, as does the chanting of OM, placing warm palms over the eyes and Asanas where the head is bent forward.


The function of Devadatta is similar to that of Samana Prana. Yawning expels gas, reducing tiredness after eating. Certain foods such as grains, onions and garlic cause fatigue. Many Yogis only eat vegetables and some milk products in order to sustain their level of vitality and thereby reduce lethargy.

KRIKALA – Sneezing

Clears blockages in the respiratory system. Sneezing can also ease headache as it releases energy blockages in the head and neck. A sneeze should not be suppressed, as this may affect vertebrae in the cervical spine. In folk tales it is said that he who sneezes loudly and strongly, has a long life. Weak sneezes indicate weak vitality.

DHANANJAYA – Opening and Closing of Heart Valves

Dhananjaya resides close to the Heart. It influences the whole body and in particular the muscles of the heart by opening and closing the heart valves. Cardiac Arrhythmia and even Heart Attack may occur due to a serious disturbance of Dhananjaya.

Flow of Prana

Flow of Prana

There are four areas in the human body where the flow of Prana is particularly intensive – through the sole of each foot and the palm of each hand. The feet are closely related to the earth element and represent negative polarity. Therefore one should never concentrate on the feet in meditation. Conversely, the energy of the palms originates from the heart. It is related to the air element and produces positive polarity.

Panch Mahabhutas

Panch Mahabhutas

Pancha meaning 5, Maha meaning big, Bhuta meaning elements.

So Panchamahabhuta is the five big elements of the universe that we can see and feel. These elements are the structural entity of the universe. According to Ayurveda everything in life is composed of the PanchamahabhutasAkash (Space), Vayu (Air), Jal (Water), Agni (Fire) andPrithvi (Earth). Omnipresent, they are mixed in an infinite variety of relative proportions such that each form of matter is distinctly unique

The 5 Great Elements

Humans are the perfect example of the universe because we are the microcosm of the universe and made of the very elements from which the entire universe is made from and these elements are referred to as “Panchamahabhutas” … translated as “The 5 Great Elements“.



Akash means having a cavity with the freedom to move. The tantra of ether elements is Shabda (Sound). Long ago, before there was anything, there was “nothing”; i.e. nothing, just space. Generally, when we measure “something” there is a point of reference [i.e. “here”] from where measurement begins to another point of reference [i.e. “there”]. However, in absolute space [i.e. ether] where there is “nothing”, there is neither ‘here’ nor ‘there’ from which to measure and therefore a state which is immeasurable. Being immeasurable, space [i.e. ether] is all-pervasive, vast, dimensionless, and essentially, … indescribable.

The qualities of ether elements are clear, light, subtle, and immeasurable. Ether element is related to various actions like expansion, vibration, and non-resistance. The sensory organ related to the ether element is the ear as it is hollow and transmits sound waves.

from a practical perspective, we can look upon the element of space as being predominately contained within various bodily cavities. After all, the body is vast space.

For example:

  • cranial cavity [ventricular space]
  • sinuses within the skull
  • vertebral cavity
  • thoracic cavity
  • abdominopelvic cavity

The space within the brain [ventricular space] allows for the passage and movement of cerebrospinal fluid [CSF], and the space within the thoracic cavity allows for the movement of air via the respiratory tract and the movement of blood [i.e. cardiovascular circulation] via the space within the chambers of the heart and the intravascular space within the lumens of various blood vessels. Similarly, the abdomino-pelvice cavity allows for the movement of various substances via the space in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, etc. Sace exists everywhere, Between cells [i.e. intracellular space], within cells [i.e. intracellular space], and even between atoms!



As described previously, space/ether allows for the potential to move. Meaning, if there is no space to move … movement ceases. Air/vayu, on the otherhand, is the driving force behind all movement. Simply said, vayu or air is the principle of movement.

Vayu or air initiates & directs motion or movement. Air element keeps the body in constant motion.

The tanmatra of Air element is Sparsha (Touch). The sensory organ related to Air element is skin. Skin is very sensitive for detecting any movement, change in pressure or vibration in subtle form. Any movement against skin can be easily registered. 

Air element is mobile, dry, light, cold and subtle in nature. Its main action is to do any kind of movement.



With the evolution of ether into air, came space and movement. The movement of vāyu brought forth vibration. The back-and-forth vibrational movement of vāyu introduces friction and with friction comes heat; i.e. fire.

Fire is radiant energy and is active and changeable. It is the source of all transformative processes in the body and is responsible for digestion, absorption and transformation of food into energy. The tanmatra of fire element is Rupa (Vision). Perception of light is carries out by this tanmatra. Fire element is hot, sharp, light, dry and subtle.

The qualities of hot, dry, penetrating and sharp demonstrate the radiant energy of Fire in the body. Skin complexion, eye luster and intelligence are expressions of the elemental energy of Fire. The liver, stomach and the pancreas are the primary sites of the Fire element. The element of Fire brings the qualities of attention, appreciation, recognition, ambition and competitiveness.



The fourth element is water. It is also called as jala or Apa. Whenever we think of water qualities like liquidity or fluidity comes to our mind. Water shows important quality of binding – e.g. if we see dry soil, we cannot make a ball out of it.

But if we add water to the soil, then we can easily make mud balls. This binding nature helps in forming different structures in the body as it binds the 2 cells together. Hence this element is a constructive force.

The tanmatra of water element is rasa (taste). The sense of taste or the ability to taste depends on the liquidity that exists within in the mouth in the form of saliva. Dry mouth along with dry tongue is unable to give sense of taste. The water element exhibits qualities like cool, liquid, dull soft, and sliminess. Its main actions are cohesiveness and adhesiveness.

The energy of water can be seen in all fluids, from cerebral spinal fluid to digestive juices. Blood, sweat, plasma, saliva and urine are the primary sites of the element of Water.

Functions Of Water:

– Moistening

– [lubricating]

– Binding

– Oozing

– Softening

– Exhilirating

  • Saliva
  • Plasma/Pericardial fluid
  • Pleural fluid
  • Gastric juices
  • ultrafiltrate of plasma/urine
  • Intracellular fluid/cytoplasm



This is the last element. It is solid, dense, gross and very hard. It is related to all solid and hard structures that show shape – e.g. bones, muscles, teeth and nails. The Earth element is responsible for giving structure, shape and strength to the body.

The tanmatra for Earth element is Gandha (Smell). The small particles of earth are scattered all over the palce gives us the sense of smell. The sensory organ related is nose. Nose is more hard compared to other sensory organs. Qualities of earth element are heavy, dull, dense hard and gross.   The qualities of forgiveness, support, growth and attachment are fostered by the Earth element.


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